Interactive Catalytic Performances of Carbonaceous Materials in Electrochemistry
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The attraction of carbon as an electrode material arises from its unique chemical and physical properties: high conductivity, good corrosion resistance, high temperature stability, high surface-area range (∼1 to >2000 m2 g−1), controlled pore structure, processability and compatibility in composite materials as well as relatively low cost. Carbon has four crystalline allotropes: diamond (sp3 bonding), graphite (sp2), carbyne (sp1) and fullerenes (‘distorted’ sp2). While the first two are natural, the other two can not be found in nature and are produces only artificially. In addition to the unusual number of allotropes, carbon also has a number of structural forms and a broad range of physical properties (Pierson 1993). Due to the wide spectrum of carbon materials, and to avoid confusion, the term “carbon” is generally used to describe an element rather than its form. describing a carbon material is done with qualifications such as ‘carbon black’, ‘activated carbon’, ‘glassy ca...rbon’, and so on. For recommended terminology and descriptions of the carbon materials used in science and technology see IUPAC publication (Fitzer et al. 1995). Most commercial carbon materials used today are colloquially referred to as “engineered carbons.” These are artificial materials with an amorphous structure, mostly with a disordered microstructure based on that of graphite. More about common precursors, controlling production factors and properties of carbon materials can be can be found elsewhere (Burchell 1999; Pandolfo and Hollenkamp 2006). Carbon has been investigated for a long time in the field of electrochemistry and it is used in different electrochemical processes which has resulted in it having an important role in the development of the discipline (Eagling 2014). For example, carbon paste and glassy carbon electrodes are necessary in electroanalysis as inexpensive alternatives to precious metals (Uslu and Ozkan 2007; Gutiérrez et al. 2015; Zavazalova et al. 2015; Vytřas, Svancara, and Metelka 2009). Also, the development of carbon fiber microelectrodes revolutionized the use of electrochemical measurements in the study of biological functions (M. Zhang et al. 2007; Uslu and Ozkan 2011; Potje-Kamloth, Janata, and Josowicz 1990; J. Wang et al. 2003). In recent years, the use of carbon in the newer forms (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene) has affected all areas of fundamental and applied electrochemistry and this will likely continue in the future. Carbon also plays an important role in the technological field of applied electrochemistry - in energy production and storage, as well as catalyst support (O’Mahony and Wang 2013; He et al. 2013; Z. Zhang et al. 2015; Meyyappan 2013; Zheng et al. 2017; Wu et al. 2016; Wei and Kivioja 2013; Lou and Chen 2015; Q. H. Wang et al. 2014; Notarianni et al. 2016; Nguyen and Nguyen 2016; Y.-J. Wang et al. 2016; Asp and Greenhalgh 2014). The carbon electrode by those in a range of disciplines, from materials chemists, engineers and physicists as well as those involved in the traditional aspects of electrochemistry. A lot of research has been done on the characterization and activation of carbon materials, with the purpose of its application in various electrochemical processes (Martinez-Huerta et al. 2010; Ahmadpour and Do 1996; Babić et al. 2007; Barbero 1993; Biniak et al. 1997; Bonnefoi et al. 1999; Chen et al. 2004; Desimoni and Brunetti 2012; Dong and Kuwana 1984; Gamby et al. 2001; Guldi and Martin 2010; Inagaki et al. 2008; Kamau 1988; Gregory K. Kiema, Aktay, and McDermott 2003; Kinoshita and Bett 1974; Mao, Hatton, and Rutledge 2013; Allen and Piantadosi 2003; Mateyshina et al. 2017; Musameh, Lawrence, and Wang 2005; Noked, Soffer, and Aurbach 2011; V. V. Panić et al. 2008; Polovina et al. 1997; Pocard et al. 1992; Deyang Qu 2002; Radeke, Backhaus and Swiatkowski 1991; H. Shi 1996; Taberna, Portet, and Simon 2006; Taberna, Simon, and Fauvarque 2003; Teng and Wang 2000; Vytřas, Svancara, and Metelka 2009; G. Wang et al. 2015; Wissler 2006; P. Zhang, Zhang, and Dai 2017) (Aleksandar Dekanski, Stevanović, Stevanović, Nikolić, et al. 2001) This chapter describes some aspects of routes used to investigate basic electrochemical properties of glassy carbon, carbon blacks, and electrocatalytic materials based on them.
Keywords:glassy carbon / carbon black / cyclic voltammetry / XPS / STM / EIS / SEM
Source:Metals and Metal-Based Electrocatalytic Materials for Alternative Energy Sources and Electronics, 2019, 1-65
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