A CaO/zeolite-based catalyst obtained from waste chicken eggshell and coal fly ash for biodiesel production
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AuthorsPavlović, Stefan M.
Kostić, Milan D.
Janković-Častvan, Ivona M.
Veljković, Vlada B.
Article (Published version)
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The present paper is focused on the development of a new environment-friendly methanolysis catalyst completely based on waste materials: lignite coal fly ash and chicken eggshells. A novel catalyst based on CaO supported on a fly ash-based zeolitic material (CaO/FA-ZM) was obtained from a cancrinite-sodalite group zeolite-like material (vishnevite type) and active CaO by alkali activation in a new miniature autoclave reactor system and hydration-dehydration. Agitation by rotation of the entire reaction mixture led to a more homogeneous zeolitic product and saved both time and energy. The obtained catalyst structure corresponds to gismondine and the crystallographic modification of calcium silicate (α’-dicalcium silicate) with deposited CaO. The characteristics of the synthesized catalyst were determined using ED-XRF, XRD, FT-IR, SEM, Hg-porosimetry, N2-physisorption, LDPSA, and Hammett indicators. The CaO/FA-ZM catalyst exhibited a high activity (97.8% of FAME for only 30 min)... and stability (a negligible drop in activity in five consecutive cycles) in the methanolysis reaction under the optimal reaction conditions (temperature of 60 °C, methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, and catalyst concentration of 6 wt%). A kinetic study was performed using two different mechanisms: the irreversible pseudo-first-order reaction mechanism in two regimes (heterogeneous and homogeneous) and the changing mechanism combined with the triacylglycerol mass transfer limitation. Both models showed a satisfactory agreement between the experimental and predicted values of conversion degree (R2 > 0.93), confirming their validity for the CaO-based heterogeneously catalyzed methanolysis. The values of the activation energy calculated for both mechanisms were 67.17 and 58.03 kJ mol−1, respectively.
Keywords:Biodiesel / Fly ash / Zeolitic material / Eggshell / Methanolysis / Kinetic modeling
Source:Fuel, 2020, 267
- Amsterdam : Elsevier
- Nanostructured Functional and Composite Materials in Catalytic and Sorption Processes (RS-45001)
- Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (the project F-78)