New organoruthenium compounds with pyrido[2′,3′:5,6]pyrazino[2,3-f][1, 10]phenanthroline: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity, and investigation of mechanism of action
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Three new ruthenium(II)-arene complexes with pyrido[2′,3′:5,6]pyrazino[2,3-f][1, 10]phenanthroline (ppf) of general formula: C1 ([(ƞ 6 -benzene)Ru(ppf)Cl]PF 6 , C2 ([(ƞ 6 -toluene)Ru(ppf)Cl]PF 6 ) and C3 ([(ƞ 6 -p-cymene)Ru(ppf)Cl]PF 6 ) have been synthesized. The structures of complexes were determined by elemental analysis, IR, ESI–MS, as well as with 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activity has been evaluated in three different human neoplastic cell lines (A549, A375, LS 174T) and in one human non-tumor cell line (MRC-5), by the MTT assay. Complexes C1–C3 showed IC 50 values in the micromolar range below 100 µM. Complex C3, carrying ƞ 6 -p-cymene as the arene ligand, exhibited cytoselective activity toward human malignant melanoma A375 cells (IC 50 = 15.8 ± 2.7 µM), and has been selected for further analyses of its biological effects. Drug-accumulation study performed in the A375 cells disclosed that C3 possess lower ability of entering the cells compared to cisplatin and d...istributes approximately equally in the cytosol and membrane/organelle fraction of cells. Investigations in the 3D model of A375 cells, disclosed different effects of the complex C3 and cisplatin on growth of multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTSs). While the size of cisplatin-treated MCTSs decreased with time, MCTSs treated with C3 continued to growth. Differences in structural organization and biological activity of this type of ruthenium(II)-arene complexes versus cisplatin in A375 malignant melanoma cells pointed out their different modes of action, and necessity for further biological studies and optimizations for potential applications.
Keywords:Anticancer agents / Biological activity / DNA intercalating ligand / Ruthenium(II)–arene complexes
Source:Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, 2019, 24, 2, 297-310
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