Chemical Defense in Millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda): Do Representatives of the Family Blaniulidae Belong to the 'Quinone' Clade?
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AuthorsVujisić, Ljubodrag V.
Antic, Dragan Z.
Sekulic, Tatjana Lj.
Tomić, Vladimir T.
Curcic, Bozidar P. M.
Makarov, Slobodan E.
Article (Published version)
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The defensive secretions of two blaniulid millipedes, Nopoiulus kochii and Cibiniulus phlepsii, were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, which showed the presence of a complex mixture of benzoquinones, hydroquinones, and oleates. Altogether, 13 compounds were identified. The major compound in the secretions of both analyzed species was 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (toluquinone). The second major constituent in the N. kochii secretion was 2-methyl-3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenol, while in that of C. phlepsii, it was 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone. The defensive secretion of N. kochii also showed a high content of hydroquinones (13.5%) in comparison to that of C. phlepsii (0.8%). Hexyl oleate and octyl oleate were detected for the first time in defensive millipede fluids. The chemical composition of the defensive secretions supports the chemotaxonomic position of the family Blaniulidae in the 'quinone' millipede clade.
Keywords:Defensive secretions / Oleates / Quinones / Nopoiulus kochii / Millipedes / Cibiniulus phlepsii
Source:Chemistry and Biodiversity, 2014, 11, 3, 483-490
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