Electrodeposition and electroless deposition of metallic powders: A comparison
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Electrodeposition and electroless deposition of metallic powders were comparatively investigated. Electrodeposition of copper is accompanied with the simultaneous hydrogen evolution, which significantly influences the morphology of Cu powder. At lower overpotentials, branched dendrites were produced. At higher overpotentials honeycomb-like deposits of copper were obtained. Formation of silver powders was characterized by the comparison of the exchange and limiting current densities. Instantaneous growth of dendrites starts at low overpotential due to large exchange current density in silver nitrate solution. Formation of powders such as Ni, Co, Ag, Pd and Au from homogenous solutions using an appropriate reducing agent or via galvanic displacement reaction was demonstrated. The hydrolysis of metallic ions is crucial in the deposition metallic powders via electroless deposition from homogenous solutions. Oxides, such as Ag 2O, Cu 2O and CuO, suspended in water can successfully be reduce...d with an appropriate reducing agent, leading to the precipitation of metallic powders.