Reactively sputtered Ni, Ni(N) and Ni3N films: Structural, electrical and magnetic properties
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Nickel thin films were deposited on glass substrates at different N2 gas contents using a dc triode sputtering deposition system. Triode configuration was used to deposit nanostructured thin films with preferred orientation at lower gas pressure and at lower substrate temperature compared to the dc diode sputtering system. A gradual evolution in the composition of the films from Ni, Ni(N), to Ni3N was found by X-ray diffraction analysis. The preferred growth orientation of the nanostructured Ni films changed from (1 1 1) to (1 0 0) for 9% N2 at 100 °C. Ni3N films were formed at 23% N2 with a particle size of about 65 nm, while for 0% and 9% of nitrogen, the particles sizes were 60 nm, and 37 nm, respectively, as obtained by atomic force microscopy. Magnetic force microscopy imaging showed that the local magnetic structure changed from disordered stripe domains of about 200 nm for Ni and Ni(N) to a structure without a magnetic contrast, indicating the paramagnetic state of this material..., which confirmed the structural transformation from Ni to Ni3N.
Keywords:Atomic force microscopy (AFM) / Magnetic properties / Nitrides / Thin films
Source:Applied Surface Science, 2009, 255, 7, 4027-4032
- Elsevier Science Bv, Amsterdam