Antidiabetics: Structural Diversity of Molecules with a Common Aim
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Background: Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is an endocrine disease of global proportions which is currently affecting 1 in 12 adults in the world, with still increasing prevalence. World Health Organization (WHO) declared this worldwide health problem, as an epidemic disease, to be the only non-infectious disease with such categorization. People with DMT2 are at increased risk of various complications and have shorter life expectancy. The main classes of oral antidiabetic drugs accessible today for DMT2 vary in their chemical composition, modes of action, safety profiles and tolerability. Methods: A systematic search of peer-reviewed scientific literature and public databases has been conducted. We included the most recent relevant research papers and data in respect to the focus of the present review. The quality of retrieved papers was assessed using standard tools. Results: The review highlights the chemical structural diversity of the molecules that have the common target-DMT2. So...-called traditional antidiabetics as well as the newest and the least explored drugs include polypeptides and amino acid derivatives (insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, amylin), sulfonylurea derivatives, benzylthiazolidine-2,4-diones (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonists/glitazones), condensed guanido core (metformin) and sugar-like molecules (alpha-glucosidase and sodium/glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors). Conclusion: As diabetes becomes a more common disease, interest in new pharmacological targets is on the rise.
Keywords:DMT2 / peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonists / metformin / alpha-glucosidase inhibitors / glucagon-likepeptide 1 analogues / dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors / amylin analogues / sodium
Source:Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2018, 25, 18, 2140-2165
- Bentham Science Publ Ltd, Sharjah