The influence of different radiopacifying agents on the radiopacity, compressive strength, setting time, and porosity of Portland cement
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The aims of this study were to evaluate the radiopacity, compressive strength, setting time, and porosity of white Portland cement (PC) with the addition of bismuth oxide (Bi2O3), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), and ytterbium trifluoride (YbF3) after immersion at 37 A degrees C for 7 days in distilled water or phosphate buffer saline. Specimens measuring 8 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness were fabricated from PC with the addition of 10, 20, and 30 wt% Bi2O3, ZrO2 or YbF3. ProRoot MTA (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK, USA) and pure PC were used as controls. For radiopacity assessments, specimens were radiographed alongside a tooth slices and an aluminum stepwedge on Extraspeed occlusal dental films (Insight Kodak, Rochester, New York). Mean optical density of each specimen was calculated and used to express radiopacity of the material as an equivalent thickness of aluminum. Compressive strength was measured by using 4-mm diameter and 6-mm high specimens and Universal testing machine. High-pressure me...rcury intrusion porosimeter (Carlo Erba Porosimeter 2000) was employed to measure the porosity of the specimens. The setting time was measured by using a needle of 100 g in weight. The morphology of specimens was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (TESCAN Mira3 XMU, USA Inc.). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test (P LT 0.05). The PC with the addition of at least 10 wt% Bi2O3 and 20 wt% ZrO2 or YbF3 demonstrated greater radiopacity value than the recommended 3 mmAl cut-off. ZrO2 and YbF3 increased the compressive strength of PC, but it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05), while Bi2O3 decreased it (P LT 0.05). All radiopacifiers significantly increased the porosity of the experimental cements (P LT 0.05). Bi2O3 extended the setting time of PC (P LT 0.05), whilst ZrO2 and YbF3 did not significantly affect it (P > 0.05). ZrO2 and YbF3 may be used as a suitable alternative to replace Bi2O3 in MTA without influencing its physical properties.
Keywords:Radiopacifying agents / Radiopacity / Compressive strength / Setting time / Porosity / Portland cement
Source:Clinical Oral Investigations, 2014, 18, 6, 1597-1604
- Springer Heidelberg, Heidelberg